Pamukkale is one of the most famous tourist attraction of Turkey. The site is under protection and a World Heritage Site together with the Hierapolis. It was made a Word Heritage Site in 1988.
The interesting travertine landscape was formed by the underground volcanic activity. The activity pushes the hot spring waters to ground level and the carbonate minerals left behind the flowing spring gives the unique form of the travertine’s.
The area is covered with 17 hot water springs. Each has a temperature of 35 °C (95 °F) to 100 °C (212 °F). This waters are carried 300 meters up to the head of the travertine terraces by the underground pressures. The water starts to travel the terrace and leaves the calcium carbonate in the sections. Within the reach to the surface the water supersaturated with calcium carbonate, de gasses the carbon dioxide. Until the carbon dioxide in the water balances the carbon dioxide in the air, the water deposits the calcium carbonate. This jelly formed calcium carbonate in the water eventually hardens and turns into travertine’s.
Hierapolis is located in the ancient city of Phrygia in south west of Anatolia which is Pamukkale now. Hierapolis is a UNESCO World Heritafe Site and under protection. The baths of the city has been bıilt with huge stone blocks without cement or any other material. The complex and the baths were built in 2 nd Centruy BC.
City has parallel running streets and a main street which is 1500 meters long. There is a theatre in the city with a capacity of 15.000 people which was changed, moved, renewed and re-designed many times by different emperors. There is also a temple in the city which was raiesed for the principal God of Hierpolis, temple of Apollo.
Plutonium, Nymphaeum, Necropolis, Martyrium, Tombs and Statues Gallery, Small Artifacts Gallery and Theater’s Ruins Gallery are the important parts of the city and must be seen during the visit of the city.